ro-crate

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Research Object Crate

View the Project on GitHub ResearchObject/ro-crate

RO-Crate Metadata Specification 0.2-DRAFT

  1. Introduction & definition of an RO-Crate
    1. Terminology
    2. Linked data conventions
  2. RO-Crate Structure
    1. RO-Crate metadata file (ro-crate-metadata.jsonld)
    2. RO-Crate website (ro-crate-preview.html and ro-crate-preview_files/)
    3. Payload files and directories
    4. RO-Crates SHOULD be self-describing and self-contained
    5. A minimal RO-Crate is a directory containing a single RO-Crate Metadata file.
  3. RO-Crate Metadata
    1. RO-Crate uses linked data principles
    2. Base metadata standard for RO-Crate: Schema.org
  4. Additional metadata standards
    1. Summary of Coverage
    2. Recommended Identifiers
    3. Core Metadata Compliance for the Root Data Entity
      1. Direct properties of the Root Data Entity
    4. Contextual Entity: Person
      1. Contextual Entity: Organization
      2. Contextual Entity: Contact Point
    5. Examples of referencing Data Entities (files and folders) from the Root Data Entity
      1. Example linking to a file and folders
    6. Core Metadata Compliance for Data Entities
      1. Directory File Entity
  5. Representing Contextual Entities
    1. People
    2. Organizations as values
    3. More detail on ContactPoint
    4. Publications
    5. Publisher
    6. Funding and grants
    7. Licensing, Access control and copyright
    8. Equipment
    9. Software
    10. Workflows and scripts
      1. Workflow diagram/sketch
    11. Representing Provenance: changes to an object
    12. Extra metadata such as Exif
    13. Places
    14. Time
    15. Subjects & keywords
    16. Digital Library and Repository content
    17. Thumbnails
  6. The RO-Crate Website
  7. Extending RO-Crate

See http://researchobject.org/ro-crate/ for details.

This specification is Copyright 2017-2019 University of Technology Sydney and The University of Manchester UK.

Licensed under the Apache License, Version 2.0 (the “License”); you may not use this file except in compliance with the License. You may obtain a copy of the License at

http://www.apache.org/licenses/LICENSE-2.0

Unless required by applicable law or agreed to in writing, software distributed under the License is distributed on an “AS IS” BASIS, WITHOUT WARRANTIES OR CONDITIONS OF ANY KIND, either express or implied. See the License for the specific language governing permissions and limitations under the License. </small>

Introduction & definition of an RO-Crate

The key words MUST, MUST NOT, REQUIRED, SHALL, SHALL NOT, SHOULD, SHOULD NOT, RECOMMENDED, MAY, and OPTIONAL in this document are to be interpreted as described in RFC 2119.

This document specifies a method, known as RO-Crate (Research Object Crate), of organizing file-based data with associated metadata, using linked data principles, in both human and machine readable formats, with the ability to include additional domain-specific metadata.

The core of RO-Crate is a JSON-LD file, the RO-Crate Metadata File, named ro-crate-metadata.jsonld. This file contains structured metadata about the dataset as a whole (the Root Data Entity) and, optionally, about some or all of its files: such as attributing the creators of the data, e.g. people, organizations, equipment and software and providing provenance for files, such as how they were created using software and equipment.

While providing the formal specification for RO-Crate, this document also aims to be a practical guide for software authors to create tools for generating and consuming research data packages, with explanation by examples.

Terminology

RO-Crate: A directory structure that contain a dataset, which is described in an RO-Crate metadata file.

RO-Crate Root: The top-level directory of the RO-Crate, indicated by the presence of the RO-Crate metadata file ro-crate-metadata.jsonld

RO-Crate metadata file: A JSON-LD file stored as ro-crate-metadata.jsonld in the RO-Crate Root. The metadata file describe the RO-Crate with structured data in form of RO-Crate JSON-LD.

RO-Crate website: Human-readable HTML pages which describe the RO-Crate (i.e. the Root Data Entity, its Data Entities and Context Entities), with a home-page at ro-crate-preview.html (any additional files reside in ro-crate-preview_files/)

Data Entity: A JSON-LD representation, in the RO-Crate metadata file, of a Dataset, file or other resource contained or described by the RO-Crate.

Root Data Entity: A Data Entity of type Dataset, representing the RO-Crate as a whole.

JSON-LD: A JSON-based file format for storing Linked Data. This document assumes JSON-LD 1.0. JSON-LD use a context to map from JSON keys to URIs.

JSON: The JavaScript Object Notation (JSON) Data Interchange Format as defined by RFC7159; a structured text file format that can be programmatically consumed and generated in a wide range of programming languages.

Context Entity: A JSON-LD representation of an entity associated with a Data Entity, needed to adequately describe that Data Entity._ For example, a Person, Organization (including research projects), item of equipment (IndividualProduct), license or any other _thing or event that forms part of the metadata for a Data Entity or supporting information.

Linked Data: A data structure where properties, types and resources are identified with URIs, which if retrieved over the Web, further describe or provide the identified property/type/resource.

URI: A Uniform Resource Identifier as defined in RFC3986, for example http://example.com/path/file.html - commonly known as URL. In this document the term URI includes IRI, which also permit international Unicode characters.

URI path: The relative path element of an URI as defined in RFC3986 section 3.3, e.g. path/file.html

RO-Crate JSON-LD Context: A JSON-LD context that provides Linked Data mapping for RO-Crate metadata to vocabularies like schema.org.

RO-Crate JSON-LD: JSON-LD using the RO-Crate JSON-LD Context containing RO-Crate metadata, which has been flattened and then compacted according to the rules in JSON-LD 1.0. The RO-Crate JSON-LD for an RO-Crate is stored in the RO-Crate metadata file.

Linked data conventions

Throughout this specification, RDF terms are referred to using the keys defined in RO-Crate JSON-LD Context.

Following schema.org practice, property names start with lowercase letters and class names with Uppercase.

In ro-crate-metadata.jsonld RDF terms use their RO-Crate JSON-LD names as defined in the RO-Crate JSON-LD Context, which is available at https://w3id.org/ro/crate/0.2-DRAFT/context

RO-Crate Structure

The structure an RO-Crate MUST follow is:

<RO-Crate root directory>/
|   ro-crate-metadata.jsonld  # RO-Crate metadata file MUST be present
|   ro-crate-preview.html     # RO-Crate Website homepage MAY be present
|   ro-crate-preview_files/   # MAY be present
|    | [RO-Crate Website files]
|   [payload files and directories]  # 1 or more SHOULD be present

The name of the RO-Crate root directory is not defined. For instance, if an RO-Crate is archived in a ZIP-file, the RO-Crate root directory will correspond to the ZIP root directory.

RO-Crate metadata file (ro-crate-metadata.jsonld)

RO-Crate website (ro-crate-preview.html and ro-crate-preview_files/)

If present ro-crate-preview.html MUST:

ro-crate-preview.html SHOULD:

Payload files and directories

These are the actual files and directories that make up the dataset being described.

The base RO-Crate specification makes no assumptions about the presence of any specific files or folders beyond those reserved RO-Crate files described above. Payload files may appear directly in the RO-Crate Root alongside the RO-Crate metadata file, and/or appear in sub-directories of the RO-Crate Root. Each file and directory MAY be represented as Data Entities in the RO-Crate metadata file.

RO-Crates SHOULD be self-describing and self-contained

A minimal RO-Crate is a directory containing a single RO-Crate Metadata file.

At the basic level, an RO-Crate is a collection of files represented as a Schema.org Dataset, that together form a meaningful unit for the purposes of communication, citation, distribution, preservation, etc. The RO-Crate Metadata File describes the RO-Crate, and MUST be stored in the RO-Crate Root. Self-containment is a core principle of RO-Crate, i.e. that all Dataset files and relevant metadata SHOULD, as far as possible, be contained by the RO-Crate, rather than referring to external resources. However the RO-Crate MAY also reference external resources which are stored or accessed separately, via URIs, e.g. because these cannot be included for practical or legal reasons.

It is important to note that the RO-Crate Metadata file is not an exhaustive manifest or inventory, that is, it does not necessarily list or describe all files in the package. Rather it is focused on providing sufficient amount of metadata to understand and use the content and is designed to be compatible with existing and future approaches that do have full inventories / manifest and integrity checks, e.g. by using checksums, such as BagIt and Oxford Common File Layout [OCFL] Objects.

The intention is that RO-Crates can work well with a variety of archive file formats, e.g. tar, zip, etc., and approaches to capturing file manifests and file fixity, such as BagIt and OCFL, git.

In addition to the RO-Crate metadata file, the RO-Crate MAY include an RO-Crate preview file a human-readable HTML rendering of the RO-Crate metadata file located in the RO-Crate root.

RO-Crate Metadata

RO-Crate uses linked data principles

TODO RO-Crate uses Linked Data principles [TODO - ref] - using URIs as names for things.

Base metadata standard for RO-Crate: Schema.org

Schema.org is the base metadata standard for RO-Crate. Schema.org was chosen because it is widely used on the World Wide Web and supported by search engines, on the assumption that discovery is likely to be maximized if search engines index the content. NOTE: As far as we know there is no alternative, well-maintained linked-data schema for research data with the coverage needed for this project - i.e. a single standard for expressing all the examples presented in this specification.

RO-Crate relies heavily on schema.org using a constrained subset of JSON-LD, and this document gives opinionated recommendations on how to represent the metadata using existing linked data best practices

Generally, the standard keys for schema.org should be used. However, RO-Crate uses variant names for some elements, specifically:

Additional metadata standards

The following terms from the from the ro-terms ontology http://purl.org/ro/wf4ever# are used:

RO-Crate also uses the Portland Common Data Model (PCDM) and imports these terms:

RepositoryObject https://pcdm.org/2016/04/18/models#Object, RepositoryCollection https://pcdm.org/2016/04/18/models#Collection RepositoryFile https://pcdm.org/2016/04/18/models#Collection hasMember https://pcdm.org/2016/04/18/models#hasMember hasFile https://pcdm.org/2016/04/18/models#hasFile

The keys RepositoryObject and RepositoryCollection were chosen to avoid collision between the terms Collection and Object with other vocabularies.

Summary of Coverage

At its core, RO-Crate is simply a way to make metadata assertions about a set of files and folders that make up a Dataset. These assertions can be made at three levels:

This document has guidelines for ways to represent common requirements for describing data in a research context, e.g.:

Workflows that operate on the data using standard workflow descriptions including ‘single step workflows’; executable files or environments such as singularity containers or Jupyter notebooks.

RO-Crate uses Linked Data principles; adopters of RO-Crate are free to supplement RO-Crate using any schema.org metadata and assertions using other vocabularies.

RO-Crate JSON-LD SHOULD use the following IDs where possible:

In the absence of the above, RO-Crates SHOULD contain stable persistent URIs to identify all entities wherever possible.

Core Metadata Compliance for the Root Data Entity

To ensure a base-line interoperability between RO-Crates, and for an RO-Crate to be considered a Valid RO-Crate, a minimum set of metadata is required for the Root Data Entity. As stated above the RO-Crate Metadata file is not an exhaustive manifest or inventory, that is, it does not necessarily list or describe all files in the package. For this reason, there are no minimum metadata requirements in terms of describing Data Entities (files and folders) other than the Root Data Entity. Extensions of RO-Crate dealing with specific types of dataset may put further constraints or requirements of metadata beyond the Root Data Entity (see Extending RO-Crate below).

The RO-Crate JSON-LD MUST contain a Root Data Entity, identified by having a path property of "./"

The table below outlines the properties that the Root Data Entity MUST have to be minimally valid and additional highlights properties required to meet other common use-cases including the minimum metadata necessary to mint a DataCite DOI:

Direct properties of the Root Data Entity

schema property constraints Valid RO-Crate Citation Use-case (DataCite) Institutional data repository (JISC RDSS) Data discovery (Google Dataset Search)
@type Must be a schema:Dataset M M M M
@id Must be a URI or a string of ‘./’ M M M M
path mapped to schema:contentURL. This property is not strictly (yet) allowed in the official Schema.org. M      
name   M M M M
datePublished   M M M  
creator Must appear at least once referencing a Contextual Entity of @type: Person or Organization ? M M
license   M M M  
identifier   ? M M  
distribution         ?
contactPoint Must appear at least once referencing a Contextual Entity of @type ContactPoint      
publisher   ? M    
description   ?     M
url Must be a valid URI or URI path   M    
hasPart Must appear for each additional Data Entity described in the RO-Crate JSON-LD which is a direct child of the Root Data Entity        

Contextual Entity: Person

(required since creator is required)

schema property constraints Valid RO-Crate Citation Use-case (DataCite) JISC RDSS Data discovery (Google Dataset Search)
@type   Y M    
@id   Y M M  
name   Y M    
familyName     O M  
givenName     O M  
identifier   ? O O  
sameAs         R

Contextual Entity: Organization

(required since creator is required)

schema property constraints Valid RO-Crate Citation Use-case (DataCite) JISC RDSS Data discovery (Google Dataset Search)
@type   Y   Y  
@id   Y   Y  
name   Y   Y  

Contextual Entity: Contact Point

(required if contactPoint is required)

schema property constraints Valid RO-Crate Citation Use-case (DataCite) JISC RDSS Data discovery (Google Dataset Search)
@type   ?     ?
@id   ?     ?
name   ?     ?
email   ?     ?

The following RO-Crate Metadata file _represents a minimal description of an RO-Crate_ dataset. Note that for brevity the RO-Crate JSON-LD Context is here shown by reference rather than inline.

{ "@context": "https://w3id.org/ro/crate/0.2-DRAFT/context", 
  "@graph": [

 {
    "@id": "https://doi.org/10.4225/59/59672c09f4a4b",
    "@type": "Dataset",
    "path": "./",
    "datePublished": "2017",
    "name": "Data files associated with the manuscript:Effects of facilitated family case conferencing for advanced dementia: A cluster randomised clinical trial",
    "distribution": { "@id": "https://data.research.uts.edu.au/examples/v1.0/timluckett.zip"
        },
"contactPoint": {
        "@id": "tim.luckett@uts.edu.au"
      }
 },
  
 {
    "@id": "https://data.research.uts.edu.au/examples/v1.0/timluckett.zip",
    "contentUrl": "https://data.research.uts.edu.au/examples/v1.0/timluckett.zip",
    "@type": "DataDownload",
    "encodingFormat": "application/zip"
 },

 {
      "@id": "tim.luckett@uts.edu.au",
      "@type": "ContactPoint",
      "contactType": "customer service",
      "email": "tim.luckett@uts.edu.au",
      "identifier": "tim.luckett@uts.edu.au",
      "url": "https://orcid.org/0000-0001-6121-5409"
  }

 ]
}

Examples of referencing Data Entities (files and folders) from the Root Data Entity

Where files and folders are represented as Data Entities in the RO-Crate JSON-LD, these MUST be linked to from the Root Data Entity using the hasPart property.

hasPart

Data Entities representing files MUST be of @type: File, which is an RO-Crate alias for http://schema.org/MediaObject

Data Entities representing directories MUST be of @type: Dataset.

Directory hierarchies MAY be represented with nested Dataset Data Entities, or the Root Dataset MAY refer to files anywhere in the hierarchy using hasPart.

Note: as indicated above, there is no requirement to represent every file and folder in an RO-Crate as Data Entities in the RO-Crate JSON-LD.

Example linking to a file and folders

<base directory>/
  |   ro-crate-metadata.jsonld
  |   cp7glop.ai
  |   lots_of_little_files/
  |    | file1
  |    | file2
  |    | ...
  |    | file54

An example RO-Crate JSON-LD for the above would be as follows:

{ "@context": "https://w3id.org/ro/crate/0.2-DRAFT/context",
  "@graph": [
  {
    "@id": "data",
    "@type": [
      "Dataset"
    ],
    "hasPart": [
      {
        "@id": "./cp7glop.ai"
      },
      {
        "@id": "./lots_of_little_files"
      },
      ],
   },
      {
        "@id": "./cp7glop.ai",
        "@type": "File",
        "contentSize": "383766",
        "description": "Illustrator file for Glop Pot",
        "encodingFormat": "Acrobat PDF 1.5 - Portable Document Format",
        "fileFormat": "https://www.nationalarchives.gov.uk/PRONOM/fmt/19"
      }
  },

  {
      "@id": "./lots_of_little_files",
      "path": "./lots_of_little_files",
      "@type": "Dataset",
      "description": "This directory contains many small files, that we're not going to describe in detail.",
      "name": "Too many files",

  }
]

Core Metadata Compliance for Data Entities

The table below outlines the properties that Data Entities, when present, MUST have to be minimally valid .

#### File Data Entity

schema property constraints Valid RO-Crate Citation Use-case (DataCite) JISC RDSS Data discovery (Google Dataset Search)
@type MUST be a File (alias of MediaObject) Y   Y  
@id MUST be URI or URI path relative to the RO Crate root Y   Y  
path mapped to http://schema.org/contentURL. This property is not strictly (yet) allowed in the official schema.org.        
name   Y   Y  
contentSize   ?   Y  
dateModified   ?   Y  
fileFormat   ?      
encodingFormat   ?      

Directory File Entity

schema property constraints Valid RO-Crate Citation Use-case (DataCite) JISC RDSS Data discovery (Google Dataset Search)
@type MUST be Dataset        

Representing Contextual Entities

People

A core principle of Linked data is to use URIs to identify things such as people. The following is the minimum recommended way of representing a creator in a RO-Crate. This property MAY be applied in the context of a directory (Dataset) or to a File.

{
      "@type": "Dataset",
      "@id": "some_id",
      "creator": {"@id": "https://orcid.org/0000-0002-8367-6908"}

}
{
    "@id": "https://orcid.org/0000-0002-8367-6908",
    "@type": "Person",
    "affiliation": "University of Technology Sydney",
    "name": "J. Xuan"
}

This uses an ORCID to unambiguously identify an author, with a Contextual Entity for the Author, of type Person.

The RO-Crate JSON-LD @graph SHOULD contain additional information about Metadata Entities for the use of both humans (in ro-crate-preview.html) and machines (in ro-crate-metadata.jsonld):

Note the string-value of the organizational affiliation. This SHOULD be improved by also providing a Context Entity for the organization.

Organizations as values

An Organization SHOULD be the value for the publisher property of a Dataset or ScholarlyArticle or affiliation property of a Person.

{
  "@type": "Dataset",
  "@id": "some_id",
  "publisher": {"@id": "https://ror.org/03f0f6041"}
}

{
  "@id": "https://ror.org/03f0f6041",
  "@type": "Organization",
  "name": "University of Technology Sydney",
  "url": "https://ror.org/03f0f6041"
}

An Organization SHOULD also be used for a Person’s affiliation.

{
  "@type": "Dataset",
  "@id": "some_id",
  "publisher": {"@id": "https://ror.org/03f0f6041"},
  "creator": {"@id": "https://orcid.org/0000-0002-3545-944X"}
},
{
  "@id": "https://ror.org/03f0f6041",
  "@type": "Organization",
  "name": "University of Technology Sydney"
},
{
  "@id": "https://orcid.org/0000-0002-3545-944X",
  "@type": "Person",
  "affiliation": {"@id": "https://ror.org/03f0f6041"},
  "email": "peter.sefton@uts.edu.au",
  "name": "Peter Sefton"
}

Sometimes researchers want to affiliate with a sub-part of an institution, such as institute, faculty department, or research group.

Here’s a (real, but abriged) example of a researcher who has four institutional affiliations for a published article and data set:

{
  "@id": "https://doi.org/10.4225/59/59672c09f4a4b",
  "@type": "Dataset",
  "path": "./",
  "creator": [
    {
      "@id": "https://orcid.org/0000-0002-6756-6119"
    }
},
{
  "@id": "https://orcid.org/0000-0002-6756-6119",
  "@type": "Person",
  "affiliation": [
    {
      "@id": "1"
    },
    {
      "@id": "2"
    },
    {
      "@id": "3"
    },
    {
      "@id": "4"
    }
  ],
  "name": "Meera Agar"
},

The first affiliation is a Faculty of a university. The Faculty is associated with the university via memberOf.

{
  "@id": "1",
  "@type": "Organization",
  "memberOf": {
    "@id": "https://ror.org/03f0f6041"
  },
  "name": "Faculty of Health, University of Technology Sydney"
},

{
  "@id": "https://ror.org/03f0f6041",
  "@type": "Organization",
  "name": "University of Technology Sydney"
},

Thus RO-Crate JSON-LD MAY express chained affiliations with more precision than by using string-literals as values for affiliation.

See an example of a Person with four affiliations.

More detail on ContactPoint

A RO-Crate SHOULD have contact information, using a contactPoint property with a value of ContactPoint. Note that Dataset does not (yet) have a contactPoint property, so strictly this would have to be on a Person or Organization which is related to the Dataset via a creator or contributor property.

NOTE: This usage follows that of Google Dataset search.

IMPLEMENTATION NOTE: The Google structured Data tool gives an error if mailto: URLs are used in the “url” property.

{
      "@id": "https://orcid.org/0000-0001-6121-5409",
      "@type": "Person",
      "affiliation": {
        "@id": "1"
      },
      "contactPoint": {
        "@id": "tim.luckett@uts.edu.au"
      },
      "familyName": "Luckett",
      "givenName": "Tim",
      "identifier": "https://orcid.org/0000-0001-6121-5409",
      "name": "Tim Luckett"
    },


  {
      "@id": "tim.luckett@uts.edu.au",
      "@type": "ContactPoint",
      "contactType": "customer service",
      "email": "tim.luckett@uts.edu.au",
      "identifier": "tim.luckett@uts.edu.au",
      "url": "https://orcid.org/0000-0001-6121-5409"
    },

This is not ideal, as there is no direct semantic relationship between the contactPoint property and the Dataset, so the same contactPoint should be added to theRoot Data Entity, in anticipation of this being added to Schema.org, even though this is not strictly supported at the moment.

{
  "@id": "https://doi.org/10.4225/59/59672c09f4a4b",
  "@type": "Dataset",
  "path": "./",
  "contactPoint": {
        "@id": "tim.luckett@uts.edu.au"
      },
}

See an example of an item of @type ContactPoint, which is linked to a Dataset and to an Organization via a contactPoint property.

Publications

To associate a publication with a dataset the RO-Crate JSON-LD MUST include a URL for example a DOI URL, as the ID of a publication using the [citation] property.

For example:

"citation": {"@id": "https://doi.org/10.1109/TCYB.2014.2386282"}

The publication SHOULD be described in the RO-Crate JSON-LD.

{
  "@id": "https://doi.org/10.1109/TCYB.2014.2386282",
  "@type": "ScholarlyArticle",
  "creator": [
    {
      "@id": "https://orcid.org/0000-0002-8367-6908"
    },
    {
      "@id": "https://orcid.org/0000-0003-0690-4732"
    },
    {
      "@id": "https://orcid.org/0000-0003-3960-0583"
    },
    {
      "@id": "https://orcid.org/0000-0002-6953-3986"
    }
  ],
  "identifier": "https://doi.org/10.1109/TCYB.2014.2386282",
  "issn": "2168-2267",
  "name": "Topic Model for Graph Mining",
  "journal": "IEEE Transactions on Cybernetics",
  "datePublished": "2015"
}

See an example of a journal article.

Publisher

The Root Data Entity in Bagged RO-Crate SHOULD have a publisher property. This should be a an Organization though it MAY be a string-literal or a URI.

{
  "@id": "https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.1009240",
  "@type": "Dataset",
  "name": "Sample dataset for RO-Crate v0.2",
  "publisher": {
    "@id": "https://ror.org/03f0f6041"
  },
  "temporalCoverage": "2017"
},

{
  "@id": "https://ror.org/03f0f6041",
  "@type": "Organization",
  "identifier": "https://ror.org/03f0f6041",
  "name": "University of Technology Sydney"
},

See an example of an Organization which is linked to the publisher property of a Dataset.

Funding and grants

To associate a research project with a Dataset, the RO-Crate JSON-LD SHOULD contain an entity for the project using type “Organization”, referenced by a funder property. The project organization SHOULD in turn reference any external funder, either by using its URL as an @id or via a Context Entity describing the funder.

NOTE: To make it very clear where funding is coming from, theRoot Data Entity SHOULD also reference funders directly, as well as via a chain of references.

{
  "@id": "https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.1009240",
  "@type": "Dataset",
  "funder": {
    "@id": "https://ror.org/038sjwq14"
  },
},

{
  "@id": "https://eresearch.uts.edu.au/projects/provisioner",
  "@type": "Organization",
  "description": "The University of Technology Sydney Provisioner project is ...",
  "funder": [
    {
      "@id": "https://ror.org/03f0f6041"
    },
    {
      "@id": "https://ands.org.au"
    }
  ],
  "identifier": "https://eresearch.uts.edu.au/projects/provisioner",
  "name": "Provisioner"
},

{
  "@id": "https://ror.org/03f0f6041",
  "@type": "Organisation",
  "identifier": "https://ror.org/03f0f6041",
  "name": "University of Technology Sydney"
},

{
  "@id": "https://ands.org.au",
  "@type": "Organization",
  "description": "The core purpose of the Australian National Data Service (ANDS) is ...",
  "identifier": "https://ands.org.au",
  "name": "Australian National Data Service"
},

See an example of a Dataset which has three listed funders in a chained relationship, for example this Organization is linked as a funder and in turn links to another funder.

If a Data Entity has a license that is different from the license on the Root Dataset, the entity SHOULD have a license property referencing a ContextEntity with a value of CreativeWork that describes the license. The ID of the license should be its URL (eg a Creative Commons License URL) and a summary of the license included using the description property. If this is not possible a URL MAY be used as the value.

This Data Item has a copyright holder which is different from its creator. There is a reference to an Organization describing the copyright holder and a sameAs relation to a web page.

{
  "@id": "SciDataCon Presentations/AAA_Pilot_Project_Abstract.html",
  "@type": "File",
  "contentSize": "17085",
  "path": "SciDataCon Presentations/AAA_Pilot_Project_Abstract.html",
  "copyrightHolder": {
    "@id": "IDRC"
  },
  "creator": {
    "@id": "https://orcid.org/0000-0002-0068-716X"
  },
  "description": "Abstract for the Pilot Project initial findings",
  "encodingFormat": "Hypertext Markup Language",
  "fileFormat": "https://www.nationalarchives.gov.uk/PRONOM/fmt/96",
  "license": {
    "@id": "https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/"
  },
  "sameAs": "https://www.scidatacon.org/2016/sessions/56/paper/265/"
},

{
  "@id": "https://orcid.org/0000-0002-0068-716X",
  "@type": "Person",
  "identifier": "https://orcid.org/0000-0002-0068-716X",
  "name": "Cameron Neylon"
},

{
  "@id": "IDRC",
  "@type": "Organization",
  "description": "Canadian Frown Corporation and funder of development research",
  "identifier": "IDRC",
  "name": "International Development Research Center"
},

See the example of a an audio recording with a copyrightHolder property (which is different from the creator property) and which is linked to a license.

Equipment

To specify which equipment was used to create or update a Data Entity, the RO-Crate JSON-LD should have a Context Entity for each item of equipment which SHOULD be of @type IndividualProduct. The entity SHOULD have a serial number, manufacturer that identifies it as completely as possible. In this case the equipment is a bespoke machine. The equipment SHOULD be described on a web page, and the address of the description SHOULD be used as its @id.

{
  "@id": "https://confluence.csiro.au/display/ASL/Hovermap",
  "@type": "IndividualProduct",
  "description": "The CSIRO bentwing is an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV, commonly known as a drone) with a LIDAR mounted underneath to capture 3D information on the surroundings.",
  "identifier": "https://confluence.csiro.au/display/ASL/Hovermap",
  "name": "bentwing"
}

Uses CreateAction and UpdateAction class to model the contributions of Context Entities of type Person or Organization in the creation of files.

In this example the CreateAction has a human agent, the object is a Place (a cave) and the Hovermap drone is the instrument used in the file creation event.

{
      "@id": "DataCapture_wcc02",
      "@type": "CreateAction",
      "agent": {
        "@id": "http://orcid.org/0000-0002-1672-552X"
      },
      "identifier": "DataCapture_wcc02",
      "instrument": {
        "@id": "https://confluence.csiro.au/display/ASL/Hovermap"
      },
      "object": {
        "@id": "victoria_arch"
      },
      "result": [
        {
          "@id": "wcc02_arch.laz"
        },
        {
          "@id": "wcc02_arch_traj.txt"
        }
      ]
    },

{
      "@id": "victoria_arch",
      "@type": "Place",
      "address": "Wombeyan Caves, NSW 2580",
      "description": "This is the GDA94 datum, which is for most situations is close to WGS84",
      "geo": {
        "@id": "08563107-deb2-4d3b-a25f-83a09b5b61d4"
      },
      "identifier": "victoria_arch",
      "name": "Victoria Arch"
    },

See an example of a data-capture CreateAction with an Object and two files as results.

Software

To specify which software was used to create or update a file the software application SHOULD be represented with an entity of type SoftwareApplication, with a version property. For example:

{
      "@id": "https://www.imagemagick.org/",
      "@type": [
        "SoftwareApplication"
      ],
      "url": "https://www.imagemagick.org/",
      "identifier": "https://www.imagemagick.org/",
      "name": "ImageMagick",
      "version": " ImageMagick 7.0.8-2 Q16 x86_64 2018-06-19"
}

The software SHOULD be associated with the File it created using a CreateAction with the File referenced by a result property. Any input files SHOULD be referenced by the object property.

In the below example, an image with the @id of pics/2017-06-11 12.56.14.jpg was transformed into an new image pics/sepia_fence.jpg using the ImageMagick software application. Actions MAY have human-readable names, which MAY be machine generated for use at scale.

{
      "@id": "Photo_Capture_1",
      "@type": "CreateAction",
      "agent": {
        "@id": "https://orcid.org/0000-0002-3545-944X"
      },
      "description": "Photo snapped on a photo walk on a misty day",
      "identifier": "Photo1",
      "endTime": "2017:06:11T12:56:14+10:00",
      "instrument": [
        {
          "@id": "EPL1"
        },
        {
          "@id": "Panny20mm"
        }
      ],
      "result": {
        "@id": "pics/2017-06-11 12.56.14.jpg"
      }
    },
    {
      "@id": "SepiaConversion_1",
      "@type": "CreateAction",
      "name": "Convert dog image to sepia",
      "description": "convert -sepia-tone 80% test_data/sample/pics/2017-06-11\\ 12.56.14.jpg test_data/sample/pics/sepia_fence.jpg",
      "identifier": "SepiaConversion",
      "endTime": "2018:09:19T17:01:07+10:00",
      "instrument": {
        "@id": "https://www.imagemagick.org/"
      },
      "object": {
        "@id": "pics/2017-06-11 12.56.14.jpg"
      },
      "result": {
        "@id": "pics/sepia_fence.jpg"
      }
    },

See an example of a CreateAction, with a result which is a File and an object, which is a place.

Workflows and scripts

Scientific workflows and scripts that can be or were used to analyze or generate files contained in an the RO-Crate MAY be embedded in an RO-Crate. Workflows and scripts are described using the type SoftwareSourceCode instead of SoftwareApplication above.

The distinction is fluid, and comes down to availability and understandability. For instance, office spreadsheet applications are generally available and do not need further explanation; while a Python script that is customized for a particular data analysis might be important to understand further and should be included as source code in the RO-Crate dataset:

       {
            "@id": "workflow/retropath.knime",
            "@type": "SoftwareSourceCode",
            "additionalType": {"@id": "Workflow"},
            "name": "RetroPath Knime workflow",
            "description": "KNIME implementation of RetroPath2.0 workflow",
            "creator": {"@id": "#thomas"},
            "programmingLanguage": {"@id": "#knime"},
            "license": "https://spdx.org/licenses/BSD-2-Clause.html",
            "potentialAction": {
                "@type": "ActivateAction",
                "instrument": {"@id": "#knime"}
            }
        }

Workflows and scripts are saved on disk using a language and generally need a runtime, in RO-Crate this SHOULD be indicated using a liberal interpretation of programmingLanguage and potentialAction. Note that the language and its runtime might differ, e.g. there are multiple potential runtimes of a JavaScript, although in the base-case they are the same, and as a shortcut can be described in one go as both a ComputerLanguage and SoftwareApplication:

       {
            "@id": "#knime",
            "@type": [
                "ComputerLanguage",
                "SoftwareApplication"
            ],
            "name": "KNIME Analytics Platform",
            "alternateName": "KNIME",
            "url": {"@id": "https://www.knime.com/knime-software/knime-analytics-platform"},
            "version": "3.6"
        }

A data entity representing a runtime application or language MUST have a name, url and version, which should indicate a known version the workflow/script was developed or tested with. [alternateName] MAY be provided if there is a shorter colloquial name, for instance “R” instead of “The R Project for Statistical Computing”.

To indicate that a SoftwareSourceCode is in the form of a script (e.g. sequential batch/shell script), use:

            "additionalType": {"@id": "WorkflowScript"}

If the SoftwareSourceCode is in the form of a workflow (e.g. a pipeline of steps with data flow), use:

            "additionalType": {"@id": "Workflow"}

Workflow diagram/sketch

It can be beneficial to show a diagram or sketch to explain the script/workflow. This may have been generated from the workflow management system or drawn manually as a diagram. It should be included as an ImageObject which is about the SoftwareSourceCode:

{
            "@id": "workflow/workflow.svg",
            "path": "workflow/workflow.svg",
            "@type": "ImageObject",
            "additionalType": "WorkflowSketch",
            "encodingFormat":  "image/svg+xml",
            "description": "Diagram of RetroPath2.0 workflow",
            "about": {"@id": "workflow/workflow.knime"}
}

The image file format SHOULD be indicated with encodingFormat via Mime - eg “image/svg+xml”.

Additionally a PRONOM identifier MAY be used, via a reference to a ContextualEntity {“@id”: “https://www.nationalarchives.gov.uk/PRONOM/fmt/92”}

{
            "@id": "workflow/workflow.svg",
            "path": "workflow/workflow.svg",
            "@type": "ImageObject",
            "additionalType": "WorkflowSketch",
            "encodingFormat":  ["image/svg+xml", {"@id": "https://www.nationalarchives.gov.uk/PRONOM/fmt/92"}],
            "description": "Diagram of RetroPath2.0 workflow",
            "about": {"@id": "workflow/workflow.knime"}
}
 { 
   "@id": "https://www.nationalarchives.gov.uk/PRONOM/fmt/92", "@type": "URL",
   "name": "Portable Network Graphics", 
   "Description": "Portable Network Graphics (PNG) ... " 
  }

A Sketch may still be provided even if there is no programmatic SoftwareSourceCode that can be executed (e.g. because the workflow was done by hand). In this case the sketch should have an about referring to the RO-Crate dataset as a whole:

"about": {"@id": "./"}

Representing Provenance: changes to an object

To record an action which changes the DataSet’s metadata, or changes its state in a publication or other workflow, a CreateAction or UpdateAction SHOULD be associated with a Data Entity.

A curation Action MUST have at least one object which associates it with either the DataSet or one of its components.

An Action which creates new Data entities - for example, the creation of a new metadata file - SHOULD have these as results.

An Action SHOULD have a name and MAY have a description.

An Action SHOULD have an endTime, which MUST be in ISO 8601 date format and SHOULD be specified to at least the precision of a day. An Action MAY have a startTime meeting the same specifications.

An Action SHOULD have a human agent who was responsible for authorizing the action, and MAY have an instrument which associates the action with a particular piece of software (for example, the content management system or data catalogue through which an update was approved) which SHOULD be of @type SoftwareApplication.

An Action’s status MAY be recorded in an actionStatus property. The status must be one of the values enumerated by ActionStatusType: ActiveActionStatus, CompletedActionStatus, FailedActionStatus or PotentialActionStatus.

An Action which has failed MAY record any error information in an error property.

UpdateAction SHOULD only be used for actions which affect the DataSet as a whole, such as movement through a workflow.

To record curation actions which modify a File within a DataSet - for example, by correcting or enhancing metadata - the old version of the File SHOULD be retained, and a CreateAction added which has the original version as its object and the new version as its result.

{
    "@id": "history-01",
    "@type": "CreateAction",
    "object": { "@id": "https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.1009240" },
    "name": "RO-Crate created",
    "endTime": "2018-08-31",
    "agent": { "@id": "https://orcid.org/0000-0001-5152-5307" },
    "instrument": { "@id": "https://stash.research.uts.edu.au" },
    "actionStatus": "CompletedActionStatus"
},

{
    "@id": "history-02",
    "@type": "UpdateAction",
    "object": { "@id": "https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.1009240" },
    "name": "RO-Crate published",
    "endTime": "2018-09-10",
    "agent": { "@id": "https://orcid.org/0000-0001-5152-5307" },
    "instrument": { "@id": "https://stash.research.uts.edu.au" },
    "actionStatus": "CompletedActionStatus"
},

{ 
    "@id": "history-03",
    "@type": "CreateAction",
    "object": { "@id": "./metadata.xml.v0.1" },
    "result": { "@id": "./metadata.xml" },
    "name": "metadata update",
    "endTime": "2018-09-12",
    "agent": { "@id": "https://orcid.org/0000-0001-5152-5307" },
    "instrument": { "@id": "https://stash.research.uts.edu.au" },
    "actionStatus": "CompletedActionStatus"
},

{
    "@id": "history-04",
    "@type": "UpdateAction",
    "object": { "@id": "https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.1009240" },
    "name": "RO-Crate published",
    "endTime": "2018-09-13",
    "agent": { "@id": "https://orcid.org/0000-0001-5152-5307" },
    "instrument": { "@id": "https://stash.research.uts.edu.au" },
    "actionStatus": "FailedActionStatus",
    "error": "Record is already published"
},


{
    "@id": "https://stash.research.uts.edu.au",
    "@type": "IndividualProduct",
    "name": "Stash",
    "description": "UTS Research Data Catalogue",
    "identifier": "https://stash.research.uts.edu.au"
}

Extra metadata such as Exif

Schema.org has a generic extension mechanism for encoding adding arbitrary properties and values which are not available as Schema.org properties. An example of of this is the Schema.org recommended way (see example 2) of including Exif technical image metadata.

To include EXIF, or other data which can be encoded as property/value pairs, add an array of references to Anonymous Entities which encode each property. This example shows one property of several hundred.

{
      "@id": "pics/2017-06-11 12.56.14.jpg",
      "@type": "ImageObject",
      "contentSize": "5114778",
      "path": "data/pics/2017-06-11 12.56.14.jpg",
      "creator": {
        "@id": "https://orcid.org/0000-0002-3545-944X"
      },
      "description": "Depicts a fence at a disused motor racing venue with the front part of a slightly out of focus black dog in the foreground.",
      "encodingFormat": "Exchangeable Image File Format (Compressed)",
      "exifData": [
        {
          "@id": "_:b0"
        },
        {
          "@id": "_:b312"
        },
      ]

{
      "@id": "_:b312",
      "@type": "PropertyValue",
      "name": "InternalSerialNumber",
      "value": "4102011002108002               "
    },

See an example of Exif data displayed in HTML.

Places

To associate a Data Entity with a Context Entity representing a geographical location or region the entity SHOULD have a property of contentLocation with a value of type Place.

This example shows how to define a place, using a geonames ID:

{
  "@id": "https://www.geonames.org/8152662/catalina-park.html",
  "@type": "Place",
  "description": "Catalina Park is a disused motor racing venue, located at Katoomba ...",
  "geo": {
    "@id": "b4168a98-8534-4c6d-a568-64a55157b656"
  },
  "identifier": "https://www.geonames.org/8152662/catalina-park.html",
  "name": "Catalina Park"
},

The place has a geo property, referencing an Context Entity of @type GeoCoordinates:

{
  "@id": "b4168a98-8534-4c6d-a568-64a55157b656",
  "@type": "GeoCoordinates",
  "latitude": "-33.7152",
  "longitude": "150.30119",
  "name": "Latitude: -33.7152 Longitude: 150.30119"
},

The GeoCoordinates item SHOULD have a human readable name, which is used in generating the ro-crate-preview.html file.

And the place is referenced from the contentLocation property of the dataset.

{
  "@id": "https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.1009240",
  "@type": "Dataset",
  "outputOf": "RO-Crate",
  "contact": {
    "@id": "https://orcid.org/0000-0002-3545-944X"
  },
  "contentLocation": {
    "@id": "https://www.geonames.org/8152662/catalina-park.html"
  },

Place MAY use any of the resources available in Schema.org to describe places. Future profiles of RO-Crate may mandate the use of a subset of these. Any directory or file or Context Entity may be geo-located. For example this file:

{
  "@id": "pics/19093074_10155469333581584_5707039334816454031_o.jpg",
  "@type": "File",
  "contentLocation": {
    "@id": "https://www.geonames.org/8152662/catalina-park.html"
  },
  "contentSize": "132765",
  "path": "pics/19093074_10155469333581584_5707039334816454031_o.jpg",
  "creator": {
    "@id": "https://orcid.org/0000-0002-3545-944X"
  },

See an example of a place in HTML.

Time

To describe the time period which a RO-Crate Data Entity is about, use [temporalCoverage].

Subjects & keywords

Subject properties (equivalent to a Dublin Core Subject) on RO-Crate MUST use the about property.

Keyword properties MUST use keyword. Note that by schema.org convention keywords are given as a single JSON string, with individual keywords separated by commas.

{
  "keyword": "Gibraltar, Spain, British Overseas Territory, city, map",
  "about": { "@id": "http://dbpedia.org/resource/Gibraltar" },
}

Digital Library and Repository content

To describe an export from a Digital Library or repository system, RO-Crate uses the Portland Common Data Model (PCDM). A Context Entity from a repository, representing an abstract entity such as a person, or a work, or a place SHOULD have a@type of RepositoryObject, in addition to any other types. Objects MAY be grouped together in RepositoryCollections with hasMember pointing to the the RepositoryObject. The keys RepositoryObject and RepositoryCollection were chosen to avoid collision between the terms Collection and Object with other vocabularies.

NOTE: PCDM specifies that Files should have only technical metadata, not descriptive metadata, which is not a restriction in RO-Crate. If the RO-Crate is to be imported into a strict PCDM repository, modeling of object/file relationships will be necessary.

For example, this data is exported from an Omeka repository:

{
   "@id": "https://omeka.uws.edu.au/farmstofreeways/api/collections/6",
   "@type": [
      "RepositoryCollection"
   ],
   "title": [
      "Project Materials"
   ],
   "description": [
      "Materials associated with the project, including fliers seeking participants, lists of sources and question outline.   "
   ],
   "publisher": [
      "University of Western Sydney"
   ],
   "rights": [
      "Copyright University of Western Sydney 2015"
   ],
   "hasMember": [
      {
         "@id": "https://omeka.uws.edu.au/farmstofreeways/api/items/166"
      },
      {
         "@id": "https://omeka.uws.edu.au/farmstofreeways/api/items/167"
      },
      {
         "@id": "https://omeka.uws.edu.au/farmstofreeways/api/items/168"
      },
      {
         "@id": "https://omeka.uws.edu.au/farmstofreeways/api/items/169"
      }
   ]
},
{
   "@id": "https://omeka.uws.edu.au/farmstofreeways/api/items/166",
   "@type": [
      "RepositoryObject",
      "Text"
   ],
   "title": [
      "Western Sydney Women's Oral History Project: Flier (illustrated)"
   ],
   "description": [
      "Flier (illustrated) seeking participants for the project."
   ],
   "publisher": [
      "University of Western Sydney"
   ],
   "rights": [
      "Copyright University of Western Sydney 2015"
   ],
   "originalFormat": [
      "Paper"
   ],
   "identifier": [
      "FTF_flier_illust"
   ],
   "rightsHolder": [
      "Western Sydney University"
   ],
   "license": [
      "Content in the Western Sydney Women's Oral History Project: From farms to freeways collection is licensed under a Creative Commons CC BY 3.0 AU licence (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/au/)."
   ],
   "hasFile": [
      {
         "@id": "./content/166/original_eece70f73bf8979c0bcfb97065948531.pdf"
      },
     ...
   ]
},
{
   "@type": "File",
   "path": "./content/166/original_eece70f73bf8979c0bcfb97065948531.pdf",
   "@id": "./content/166/original_eece70f73bf8979c0bcfb97065948531.pdf"
},

See an example of a repository exported to a RO-Crate.

Thumbnails

A File or any other item MAY have a thumbnail property which references another file.

For example, the below RepositoryObject is related to four files which are all versions of the same image (via hasFile) one of which is a thumbnail. The thumbnail MUST be included in the RO-Crate.

If thumbnails are incidental to the data set, they need not be referenced by hasPart or hasFile relationships. but must be in the BagIt manifest if in a Bagged RO-Crate.

{
  "@id": "https://omeka.uws.edu.au/farmstofreeways/api/items/383",
  "@type": [
    "RepositoryObject",
    "Image"
  ],
  "identifier": [
    "ftf_photo_stapleton1"
  ],
  "interviewee": [
    {
      "@id": "https://omeka.uws.edu.au/farmstofreeways/api/items/595",
    }
  ],
  "description": [
    "Photo of Eugenie Stapleton inside her home"
  ],
  "license": [
    "Content in the Western Sydney Women's Oral History Project: From farms to freeways collection is licensed under a Creative Commons CC BY 3.0 AU licence (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/au/)."
  ],
  "publisher": [
    "University of Western Sydney"
  ],
  "hasFile": [
    {
      "@id": "files/383/original_c0f1189ec13ca936e8f556161663d4ba.jpg"
    },
    {
      "@id": "files/383/fullsize_c0f1189ec13ca936e8f556161663d4ba.jpg"
    },
    {
      "@id": "files/383/thumbnail_c0f1189ec13ca936e8f556161663d4ba.jpg"
    },
    {
      "@id": "files/383/square_thumbnail_c0f1189ec13ca936e8f556161663d4ba.jpg"
    }
  ],
  "thumbnail": [
    {
      "@id": "files/383/thumbnail_c0f1189ec13ca936e8f556161663d4ba.jpg"
    }
  ],
  "name": [
    "Photo of Eugenie Stapleton 1"
  ],
  "relatedLink": [
    "<a href=\"https://omeka.uws.edu.au/farmstofreeways/items/show/512\">Audio recording of interview with Eugenie Stapleton</a><br /><a href=\"https://omeka.uws.edu.au/farmstofreeways/items/show/454\">Transcript of interview with Eugenie Stapleton</a> <br /><a href=\"https://omeka.uws.edu.au/farmstofreeways/items/show/384\">Photo of Eugenie Stapleton 2</a><br /><a href=\"https://omeka.uws.edu.au/farmstofreeways/items/show/464\">Letter from Eugenie Stapleton</a>"
  ],
  "copyrightHolder": [
    {
      "@id": "https://westernsydney.edu.au",
    }
  ],
  "copyright": [
    "Copyright University of Western Sydney 2015"
  ]
},
{
  "@type": "File",
  "path": [
    "data/files/384/original_2ebbe681aa6ec138776343974ce8a3dd.jpg"
  ],
  "@id": "files/384/original_2ebbe681aa6ec138776343974ce8a3dd.jpg"
},
{
  "@type": "File",
  "path": [
    "data/files/384/fullsize_2ebbe681aa6ec138776343974ce8a3dd.jpg"
  ],
  "@id": "files/384/fullsize_2ebbe681aa6ec138776343974ce8a3dd.jpg"
},
{
  "@type": "File",
  "path": [
    "data/files/384/thumbnail_2ebbe681aa6ec138776343974ce8a3dd.jpg"
  ],
  "@id": "files/384/thumbnail_2ebbe681aa6ec138776343974ce8a3dd.jpg"
},
{
  "@type": "File",
  "path": [
    "data/files/384/square_thumbnail_2ebbe681aa6ec138776343974ce8a3dd.jpg"
  ],
  "@id": "files/384/square_thumbnail_2ebbe681aa6ec138776343974ce8a3dd.jpg"
},

 

See an example of a thumbnail.

The RO-Crate Website

The RO-Crate ro-crate-preview.html is an entry point to the RO-Crate Website, a collection of one or more HTML pages which describe each Data Entity and each Contextual Entity. The ro-crate-preview.html file MUST describe theRoot Data Entity.

The RO-Crate website SHOULD contain at least the same information as the JSON-LD ro-crate-metadata.jsonld, organized as described below, with the exception that files which have no description description, creator or similar metadata MAY not be listed in the website.

RO-Crate ro-crate-preview.html MUST be a static HTML file that will display human-readable information without scripting. It MAY contain extra features enabled by JavaScript.

The ro-crate-preview.html and index.html files file SHOULD:

Extending RO-Crate

To extend RO-Crate implementers SHOULD try to use valid schema.org properties and classes and MAY use terms from other vocabularies and ontologies when this is not possible.

The terms (properties and classes) used SHOULD be added as keys to the @context in the RO-Crate JSON-LD. URIs in the @context SHOULD resolve to a useful human readable page. Where this is not possible - for example if the URI resolves to an RDF ontology file a human-readable URI SHOULD be provided using SameAs.

For example. This URI from the BIBO ontology resolves to an ontology file, which is not useful for humans, but this page is human-readable:

{
  "@context": [ "https://w3id.org/ro/crate/0.2-DRAFT/context"
    {"interviewee": "http://purl.org/ontology/bibo/interviewee"},
  ],
  "@graph": [

  {
      "@id": "http://purl.org/ontology/bibo/interviewee",
      "sameAs": "http://neologism.ecs.soton.ac.uk/bibo.html#interviewee",
      "@type": "URL"
  }
 ]
}

When generating the RO-Crate Website from RO-Crate JSON-LD, the code MUST use a sameAs URI (if present) as a target for an explanatory link for the term instead of the Linked Data URI supplied in the @context.

See an example of the key “interviewee” resolving to a human-readable page. and download the RO-Crate JSON-LD

Where there is no RDF ontology available, then implementors SHOULD attempt to provide context by creating stable web-accessible URIs to document properties and classes, for example, by linking to page describing an XML element or attribute from an XML schema, pending the publication of a formal ontology.